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Verses On The Perfection Of Wisdom Prajnaparamita Ratnagunasamcayagatha Translated by Edward Conze  

2017-06-14 16:08:27|  分类: 佛典 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Verses On The Perfection Of Wisdom

Prajnaparamita Ratnagunasamcayagatha

Translated by Edward Conze

2017年06月14日佛说佛母寶德藏般若波羅蜜经之一



(Taisho Tripitaka 0229)




Homage to all Buddhas and Bodhisattvas!

Thereupon the Lord, in order to gladden the four assemblies, and to further lighten up this perfection of wisdom, preached at that time the following verses:


Chapter I

Preliminary Admonition


"Call forth as much as you can of love, of respect and of faith!
Remove the obstructing defilements, and clear away all your taints!
Listen to the Perfect Wisdom of the gentle Buddhas,
Taught for the weal of the world, for heroic spirits intended!

The rivers all in this Roseapple Island
Which cause the flowers to grow, the fruits, the herbs and trees,
They all derive from the might of the king of the Nagas,
From the Dragon reside in Lake Anopatapta, his magical power.

Just so, whatever Dharmas the Jina's disciples establish,
Whatever they teach, whatever adroitly explain--
Concerning the work of the holy which leads to the fullness of bliss,
And also the fruit of this work--it is the Tathagata's doing.

For whatever the Jina has taught, the Guide to the Dharma
His pupils, if genuine, have well been trained in it.
From direct experience, derived from their training, they teach it,
Their teaching stems but from the might of the Buddhas, and not their own power.


The Basic Teachings

No wisdom can we get hold of, no highest perfection,
No Bodhisattva, no thought of enlightenment either.
When told of this, if not bewildered and in no way anxious,
A Bodhisattva courses in the Well-Gone's wisdom.

In form, in feeling, will, perception and awareness
Nowhere in them they find a place to rest on.
Without a home they wander, dharmas never hold them,
Nor do they grasp at them--the Jina's Bodhi they are bound to gain.

The wanderer Srenika in his gnosis of the truth
Could find no basis, though the skandhas had not been undone.
Just so the Bodhisattva, when he comprehends the dharmas as he should
Does not retire into Blessed Rest. In wisdom then he dwells.

What is this wisdom, whose and whence, he queries,
And then he finds that all these dharmas are entirely empty.
Uncowed and fearless in the face of that discovery
Not far from Bodhi is that Bodhi-being then.

To course in the skandhas, in form, in feeling, in perception.
Will and so on, and fail to consider them wisely;
Or to imagine these skandhas as being empty;
Means to course in the sign, the track of non-production ignored.

But when he does not course in form, in feeling, or perception
In will or consciousness, but wanders without home,
Remaining unaware of coursing firm in wisdom,
His thoughts on non-production--then the best of all the calming trances cleaves to him.

Through that the bodhisattva now dwells tranquil in himself,
His future Buddhahood assured by antecedent Buddhas.
Whether absorbed in trance, or whether outside it, he minds not.
For of things as they are he knows the essential original nature.

Coursing thus he courses in the wisdom of the Sugatas,
And yet he does not apprehend the dharmas in which he course.
This coursing he wisely knows as a no-coursing,
That is his practice of wisdom, the highest perfection.

What exists not, that non-existent the foolish imagine;
Non-existence as well as existence they fashion.
As dharmic facts existence and non-existence are both not real.
A bodhisattva goes forth when wisely he knows this.

If he knows the five skandhas as like an illusion,
But makes not illusion one thing, and the skandhas another;
If, freed from the notion of multiple things, he courses in peace--
That this is his practice of wisdom, the highest perfection.

Those with good teachers as well as deep insight,
Cannot be frightened on hearing the Mothers' deep tenets.
But those with bad teachers, who can be misled by others,
Are ruined thereby, as an unbaked pot when in contact with moisture.


Three Key Terms Defined

What is the reason why we speak of 'Bodhisattvas?'
Desirous to extinguish all attachment, and to cut it off,
True non-attachment, or the Bodhi of the Jinas is their future lot.
'Beings who strive for Bodhi' are they therefore called.

What is the reason whey 'Great Beings' are so called?
They rise to the highest place above a great number of people;
And of a great number of people they cut off mistaken views.
That is why we come to speak of them as 'Great Beings.'

When free from doubts the Bodhisattva carries on his practice,
As skilled in wisdom he is knows to swell.
All dharmas are not really there, their essential original nature is empty.
To comprehend that is the practice of wisdom, perfection supreme.


Chapter II

Where Bodhisattvas Stand


He does not stand in form, perception or in feeling,
In will or consciousness, in any skandha whatsoever.
In Dharma's true nature alone he is standing.
Then that is his practice of wisdom, the highest perfection.

Change and no change, suffering and ease, the self and not-self,
The lovely and repulsive--just one Suchness in this Emptiness they are.
And so he takes not his stand on the fruit which he won, which is threefold--
That of an Arhat, a Single Buddha, a Buddha fully enlightened.

The Leader himself was not stationed in the realm which is free from conditions,
Nor in the things which are under conditions, but freely he wandered without a home:
Just so, without a support of a basis a Bodhisattva is standing.
A position devoid of a basis has that position been called by the Jina.


Wherein Bodhisattvas Train

Those who wish to become the Sugata's Disciples,
Or Pratyekabuddhas, or likewise, Kings of the Dharma--
Without resort to this patience they cannot reach their respective goals.
They move across, but their eyes are not on the other shore.

Those who teach dharma, and those who listen when it is being taught;
Those who have won the fruit of an Arhat, a Single Buddha, or a world-savior;
And the Nirvana obtained by the wise and the learned--
Mere illusions, mere dreams--so has the Tathagata taught us.

Four kinds of persons are not alarmed by this teaching:
Sons of the Jina skilled in the truths; saints unable to turn back,
Arhats free from defilements and taints, and rid of their doubts;
Those whom good teachers mature are reckoned the fourth kind.

Coursing thus, the wise and learned Bodhisattva,
Trains not for Arhatship, nor on the level of Pratyekabuddhas.
In the Buddha-dharma alone he trains for the sake of all-knowledge.
No training is his training, and no one is trained in this training.

Increase or decrease of forms is not the aim of this training,
Nor does he set out to acquire various dharmas.
All-knowledge alone he can hope to acquire by this training.
To that he goes forth when he trains in their training, and delights in its virtues.


The Facts of Existence

Forms are not wisdom, nor is wisdom found in form,
In consciousness, perceptions, feeling, or in will.
They are not wisdom, and no wisdom is in them.
Like space it is, without a break or crack.

Of all objective supports the essential original nature is boundless;
Of beings likewise the essential original nature is boundless.
As the essential original nature of space has no limits,
Just so the wisdom of the World-knowers is boundless

'Perceptions'--mere words, so the Leaders have told us;
Perceptions forsaken and gone, and the door is open to the Beyond.
Those who succeed in ridding themselves of perceptions,
They, having reached the Beyond, fulfill the Teacher's commandments.

If for eons countless as the sands of the Ganges
The Leader would himself continue to pronounce the word 'being':
Still, pure from the very start, no being could ever result from his speaking.
That is the practice of wisdom, the highest perfection."


Conclusion

And so the Jina concludes his preaching, and finally tells us:
"When all I said and did at last agreed with perfect wisdom,
Then this prediction I received from Him who went before me:
'Fully enlightened, at a future time thou shalt a Buddha be!' "


Chapter III

The Merit Derived from Perfect Wisdom


"One who will take up this Perfection of Wisdom,
Wherein the Saviours course, and constantly study it;
Fire, poison, sword and water cannot harm him,
And also Mara finds no entrance, nor his host. 

Someone may for the Sugata who went to rest build Stupas,
Made of the seven precious things, and worship them;
Until thousands of kotis of fields are filled with these Stupas
Of the Sugata, countless as the sands of the Ganges; 

And like him as many beings again as there are in endless kotis of fields,
They all would do worship, without doing anything else, -
With heavenly flowers and the best perfumes and unguents, -
Let us reckon for aeons in the three periods, and still more than that: 

But if someone else had copied this book, the Mother of the Sugatas,
From which come forth the Guides with the ten powers,
Would bear it in mind, revere it with flowers and unguents, -
An infinitesimal portion of his merit would have those who had given worship to the Stupas.

Perfect Wisdom a Great Lore

This Perfection of Wisdom of the Jinas is a great lore,
Appeasing dharmas making for sorrow and ill in many a world of beings.
The Saviours of the World in the past, and in the future, and those [now] in the ten directions,
They have, by training in this lore, become the supreme physicians. 

And [also] those who course in the practice of pity and concern for the welfare of others,
They, the wise, by having trained in this lore, will experience enlightenment.
Those who have conditioned happiness, and those who have unconditioned happiness,
All their happiness should be known as having issued from this.

Perfect Wisdom and the Other Five Perfections

Gems exist potentially scattered in the earth,
And, when conditions are favourable, they grow in great variety:
All the qualities of enlightenment [that are in] the five perfections,
They all grow from the perfection of wisdom. 

Wherever, we know, the Universal Monarch may travel,
There is all the army of all the seven precious things:
Wherever there is this perfection of wisdom of the Jinas,
There also all dharmas of good quality are brought along." 


Chapter IV

Relative Value of Relics and Perfect Wisdom


Asked a question by the Jina, Sakra answered:
"If I could have Buddhafields like the sands of the river Ganges,
All of them filled to the top with the relics of the Jinas:
Nevertheless I would still take this wisdom, the foremost of the perfections. 

For what reason? It is not that I lack in respect for the relics,
But they are worshipped because they are fostered by wisdom. 
Just as every man who is supported by the king gets worship,
Just so the Buddha-relics, because they are supported by the perfection of wisdom.

Simile of the Wishing Jewel

A precious gem, in possession of all qualities, priceless,
The basket in which it may be, should be paid homage to;
Even when it has been taken out, the basket continues to emit its radiance:
Such are the qualities of that gem. 

Just so it is with the qualities of wisdom, the foremost perfection,
Which gain worship for the relics of the Jina even after he has gone to rest.
Therefore let him who wants to win the Jina-qualities
Take up the perfection of wisdom. She is the liberation."

Perfect Wisdom and the Other Five Perfections

[The Lord then said:] "Wisdom controls him who gives gifts,
And also morality, patience, vigour and concentration.
She takes hold of the wholesome dharmas so that they may not be lost.
She alone is also the one who reveals all dharmas.
Simile of the Shadows

There are in Jambudvipa many thousands of kotis of trees,
Of different species, manifold and different in form;
And yet there would not also be a difference between their shadows,
But when one speaks they are all equally reckoned as shadows: 

Just so do these five perfections of the Jinas
Have their name from the perfection of wisdom:
When they are being turned over into all-knowledge,
The name of enlightenment provides one single principle for all the six of them. 

Chapter V

The Counterfeit and the True Perfection of Wisdom


When a Bodhisattva [falsely] reveals form, perception, feeling, will,
Or thought as impermanent [claiming that they are destroyed], -
In the counterfeit [perfection of wisdom] he courses, considering not wisely;
Because the learned never effect the destruction of a dharma. 

Wherein of form, of feeling, or perception,
Or consciousness, or will there is no apprehension:
By the method of emptiness and non-production [he] cognizes all dharmas.
This is the practice of wisdom, the foremost perfection.

Perfect Wisdom Greater Than Any Other Spiritual Gift

If someone would discipline in Arhatship as many beings
As there are in fields equal to the sands of the river Ganges:
And if someone else, having copied this perfection of wisdom,
Would give the book to another being, - his would be the more distinguished merit. 

For what reason? The supreme Teachers, trained in this,
Make all dharmas intelligible in this emptiness.
When they have learned that the Disciples speedily experience their own kind of emancipation,
Others experience Pratyekabuddha-enlightenment, others again the Buddha-enlightenment.

Importance of the Thought of Enlightenment

Where there is no sprout, there can in the world be no tree.
How can therein be the production of branches, leaves, fruits or flowers?
Without the aspiration for enlightenment there is no possibility of a Jina in the world.
How then could Sakra, Brahma, fruit and disciples manifest themselves? 

When the orb of the sun sends forth a multitude of light,
Then beings exert themselves in doing their work:
So, when the thought of enlightenment has come into being for the sake of knowing the world,
Through its cognition all the dharmas of quality are assembled. 

If there were no Chief of the Serpents in his Anavatapta [Lake],
How could there be here in Jambudvipa a flowing along of the rivers?
And if there were no rivers, fruits and flowers could not possibly be,
And there would also be no manifold jewels in the oceans. 

So, if there were no thought of enlightenment, how could there be
The flowing along of the cognition of the Tathagata in all these worlds?
And if there is no cognition, there can be no growth of the virtues,
No enlightenment, nor the oceanlike dharmas of the Buddha.

The Sun and the Firefly

If all the light-emitting animals everywhere in this world
Would, for the purpose of illumination, shed light:
One single ray, issued from the orb of the sun, outshines them all,
And infinitesimal would be all the luster of the hosts of light-emitting animals. 


Chapter VI

Supreme Merit of Dedication and Jubilation


However much merit the hosts of Disciples may beget,
Associated with giving, morality, and [meditational] development:
But if a Bodhisattva rejoices with one single thought,
There would [by comparison] be no mass of merit in all the hosts of the Disciples.

The Range of Jubilation

If we take the niyutas of kotis of Buddhas, who have gone by in the past period of time,
And those who just now abide in endlessly many thousands of kotis of Buddha-fields;
And also those Saviours of the world who, having gone to Parinirvana,
Will demonstrate the jewel of Dharma for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering;

If we consider the merit of those Jinas during the period
Beginning with the first production of the thought of the foremost enlightenment,
Until the time of the extinction of the good Dharma of the Guides,
And the dharmas connected with the perfections, and also the Buddha-dharmas, 

And also the merit of the offspring of the Buddhas, and of the Disciples,
Be they in training or adepts, with outflows or without, -
Having heaped it all up, the Bodhisattva rejoices at it,
And turns it all over to the enlightenment which is linked with the weal of the world.

True and False Turning over

When in one who turns over there proceeds the perception of a thought,
Or if the turning over of the perception of enlightenment involves the perception of a being:
Established in perception, false views, and thought, it is tied by the triple attachment.
It does not become turned over to those who apprehend it. 

But when he thus cognizes: These dharmas are extinct and stopped,
And wherein they are turned over, that is also extinct;
Nor is ever anywhere a dharma turned over into a dharma:
Then it does become turned over in one who thus considers wisely. 

When he makes a sign, he does not turn over [to enlightenment],
But if [he turns to it as] the signless, [that] becomes turned over into enlightenment.
Just as though food mixed with poison were good to cat,
So has the taking of pure dharmas as a basis been spoken of by the Jina. 

Therefore thus should one train in turning over:
As the Jinas wisely know that wholesome [root], -
Its class as it is, its origins as they are, its characteristics as they are, -
Thus do I rejoice [in that wholesome root], thus do I turn [it] over. 

And thus turning merit over into enlightement,
He does not upset the Buddha, one who preaches what the Jina has taught.
As many as there are in the world Bodhisattvas who lean on a basis
All of them surpasses the hero who turns over in this way. 


Chapter VII
Chapter VII

Perfect Wisdom Guides the Other Perfections
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