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受十善戒經 Sūtra of Accepting the Ten Good Karmas as Precepts  

2017-06-03 19:59:17|  分类: 佛典 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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受十善戒經
Sūtra of Accepting the Ten Good Karmas as Precepts

Translated from Sanskrit into Chinese in the Later Han Dynasty
by
An Unknown Person

Chapter 1
The Ten Evil Karmas

Thus I have heard:
    At one time the Bhagavān was staying in the ashram in Jetavana Garden, offered by the Elder Sudatta and his wife Vi?akhā, in the city kingdom of ?rāvastī, together with 1,250 greatbhik?us. At that time, in loving-kind Brahma tones the World-Honored One said to ?āriputra, “I now expound to you all how to prevent the ten evil karmas and their requitals. Hearken! Hearken! Remember and uphold my words single-mindedly, never forget or lose them. The ten evil karmas are (1) killing, (2) stealing, (3) sexual misconduct, (4) false speech, (5) divisive speech, (6) abusive speech, (7) suggestive speech, (8) greed, (9) anger, and (10) delusion [the wrong views].

Purifying One’s Body, Voice, and Mind

“?āriputra, you now should teach all sentient beings to purify their body karmas, voice karmas, and mind karmas. They should prostrate themselves on the ground to take refuge in thepreceptor, and sincerely repent of their three evil karmas. They should say their repentance three times. After repentance, their body karmas, voice karmas, and mind karmas are purified. Then, three times they should say, ‘I, Disciple A, take refuge in the Buddha, take refuge in the Dharma, take refuge in the Sa?gha.’ Also three times they should next say, ‘Completion of taking refuge in the Buddha, completion of taking in the Dharma, completion of taking refuge in the Sa?gha.’
    “Then ask them, ‘Good men and good women, can you uphold your refuge?’ If they say that they can, then ask them, ‘Have your body and mind sinned? These sins include shedding the blood of a Buddha, killing an Arhat, disrupting the harmony of a Sa?gha, and maligning the true Dharma of the Buddha.’ If their answer is negative, you should further ask, ‘Have you thought about committing any of the five rebellious sins or maligning the true Dharma? Have you stolen from the Sa?gha things pertaining to the Buddha or the Dharma, offerings to the holy ones, personal things, or communal things? Have you ever defiled your mother or sisters, or bhik?u?īs?’
    “If their answer is negative, you should teach them that they now are pure in body and mind, and that they should ask, ‘Virtuous One, please remember that I wish to receive the ten good karmas as precepts because I have repented of the ten evil karmas. I pray only that the Virtuous One, out of lovingkindness and compassion for me, will permit me to receive them.’

Accepting the Ten Good Karmas as Precepts

“Then you should teach them, ‘Upāsaka (or Upāsikā) A, you now should single-mindedly count your breaths and think of the past seven Buddhas, present Buddhas, such as ?ākyamuni Buddha, and future Buddhas, such as Maitreya Buddha. As you think of them, you should ask, “Hear me, the past seven Buddhas and Their Sa?ghas. Hear me, present Buddhas and Their Sa?ghas, including ?ākyamuni Buddha and His Sa?gha. Hear me, the holy monks—Srotāpannas, Sak?dāgāmins, Anāgāmins, and Arhats. I, Disciple A, pure in body, voice, and mind, am capable of being a Dharma vessel. I now beseech to receive the heart precepts for the ten good karmas and receive the eight precepts.”’ They should voice this request three times.
    “Then teach them to say three times, ‘I, Disciple A, take refuge in the Buddha, take refuge in the Dharma, take refuge in the Sa?gha.’ Also three times they should next say, ‘Completion of taking refuge in the Buddha, completion of taking refuge in the Dharma, completion of taking refuge in the Sa?gha.’
    “Say to the refuge taker, ‘Upāsaka (or Upāsikā) A, you should remember and firmly uphold your body. Uphold your body as you would uphold the Buddha, uphold your body as you would uphold the Dharma, and uphold your body as you would uphold the Sa?gha. The three [good] body karmas are no killing, no stealing, and no sexual misconduct. You should uphold these three body karmas for one to ten days and even for your entire life.’
    “If they accept, then ask them, ‘Do you now desire to do good in small measure, large measure, or even full measure?’ If their answer is affirmative, then tell them, ‘This is acknowledged.’
    “Then teach them to say three times, ‘I, Disciple A, take refuge in the Buddha, take refuge in the Dharma, take refuge in the Sa?gha.’ Also three times they should next say, ‘Completion of taking refuge in the Buddha, completion of taking refuge in the Dharma, completion of taking refuge in the Sa?gha.’
    “Then tell them, ‘Upāsaka (or Upāsikā) A, you should remember and firmly uphold your voice. Uphold your voice as you would uphold the Buddha, uphold your voice as you would uphold the Dharma, and uphold your voice as you would uphold the Sa?gha. The four [good] voice karmas are no false speech, no divisive speech, no abusive speech, and no suggestive speech. You should uphold these four voice karmas for one to ten days and even for your entire life.’
    “If they accept, then ask them, ‘Do you now desire to do good in small measure, large measure, or even full measure?’ If their answer is affirmative, then tell them, ‘This is acknowledged.’
    “Then teach them to say three times, ‘I, Disciple A, take refuge in the Buddha, take refuge in the Dharma, take refuge in the Sa?gha.’ Also three times they should next say, ‘Completion of taking refuge in the Buddha, completion of taking refuge in the Dharma, completion of taking refuge in the Sa?gha.’
    “Then tell them, ‘Upāsaka (or Upāsikā) A, remember and firmly uphold your mind. Uphold your mind as you would uphold the Buddha, uphold your mind as you would uphold the Dharma, and uphold your mind as you would uphold the Sa?gha. The three [good] mind karmas are no greed, no anger, and no delusion. You should uphold these three mind karmas for one to ten days and even for your entire life.’
    “If they accept, then ask them, ‘Do you now desire to do good in small measure, large measure, or even full measure?’ If their answer is affirmative, then tell them, ‘This is acknowledged.’
    “Then teach them to say, ‘If I accept the ten good karmas as precepts without receiving the eight precepts, I ultimately cannot come to spiritual achievement. If the eight precepts are violated, then the ten good karmas are destroyed. Virtuous One, please remember that I, Disciple A, wish the Virtuous One to be my preceptor of the eight precepts from this morning to the next morning.’

Accepting the Eight Precepts

“To accept earnestly the eight precepts, three times they should say, ‘I take refuge in the Buddha and uphold my mind as I would uphold the Buddha; I take refuge in the Dharma and uphold my mind as I would uphold the Dharma; I take refuge in the Sa?gha and uphold my mind as I would uphold the Sa?gha.’ Also three times they should next say, ‘Completion of taking refuge in the Buddha, completion of taking refuge in the Dharma, completion of taking refuge in the Sa?gha.’ Then they should say, ‘Virtuous One, please remember that I wish to receive the eight precepts from this morning to the next morning. I pray that the Virtuous One, out of compassion, will permit me.’
    “Then ask them, ‘Can you observe the eight precepts?’ If they say that they can, then tell them, ‘You should uphold your minds. The mind is like Buddhas and Arhats.’ If they accept, then ask them, ‘From the past to the present, have you ever, through your body, voice, and mind, committed sins, because of which you will lose your roots of goodness and fall into hell? You should disclose such sins, including the gravest root sins, before Buddhas, Arhats, and your preceptor, and prostrate yourselves on the ground to repent of them. This is called practicing po?adha. One who has completed po?adha remains in purity and is capable of being a Dharma vessel. Then you should accept and observe the eight precepts of the Tathāgata. Can you observe them?’ Ask them this three times.
    “The eight precepts for purification are monastic rules instituted specially for laypeople by Buddha-Tathāgatas of the past, present, and future. These are (1) no killing; (2) no stealing; (3) no sex; (4) no lying; (5) no drinking alcohol; (6) no wearing perfumes or adornments, and no singing, playing music, or watching song-dance entertainments; (7) no sleeping on a luxurious bed; (8) no eating after lunch, until morning. They should observe these precepts.

Neither killing nor stealing,
Neither having sex nor telling lies,
Neither drinking alcohol nor wearing perfumes or adornments,
Neither sleeping on luxurious beds nor eating food after lunch,
Holy ones stay away from these things.

These eight precepts
You all should accept and observe.

“Supported by the merits acquired from observing these purifying precepts, one will not fall into hell, nor will one become a hungry ghost, or an animal or asura. One will always be reborn as a human. With the right views, one will renounce family life in order to acquire the Way to nirvā?a. If one is reborn in a heaven, it will be a Brahma heaven. One will encounter a Buddha appearing in the world and request Him to turn the Dharma wheel, and one will eventually attain anuttara-samyak-sa?bodhi.”

The Requitals for Upholding the Ten Good Karmas and the Eight Precepts

At that time the World-Honored One, in praise of this Dharma, spoke in verse:

If one can carry out the ten good karmas
And follow the teachings in the true Dharma,
One will always see Buddhas life after life.
With body and mind open to understanding,
One will forever discard the bondage of suffering
And quickly attain the unsurpassed bodhi.

If one observes the eight precepts and
Follows the Vinaya
Without violation,
And upholds the true Dharma of Buddhas,
One’s body and mind
Will be liberated.
This is called the road to nirvā?a,
Which is walked by all Buddhas.

Having spoken these stanzas, the Buddha told ?āriputra, “Accept and uphold the ten good karmas and the eight precepts. Take care not to forget or lose them, resulting in destruction of the Dharma seeds. Widely pronounce them to all gods and humans.”
    ?āriputra said to the Buddha, “Indeed! Indeed! I will vigilantly accept and uphold them. At that time ?āriputra and all others in the assembly, having heard the Buddha’s words, rejoiced and reverently carried out the teachings.


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